Reflections

Take a few minutes to think about how you train and keep your horse.
Does your horse obey to gain something appetitive or to avoid something aversive?

Do you abide by the LIMA principles?
Do you know what the humane hierarchy looks like?
Do you understand the 5 Domains of animal welfare?
How can you tell whether your horse is “happy”?

I don’t have all the answers but they are worth thinking about next time you are with your horse. Negative reinforcement is what most people use but it must be understood and used appropriately until you learn how to train without aversive stimuli. There are other components of how we all learn and they are worth exploring. Of course punishment is a last resort and only to be used if we are in a dangerous situation with an insufficiently trained horse.
Not every one will want to change and if you consider your horse happy with what you ask then you may not even understand the reason to change or even to learn more.
The more tools we have in our tool box the better trainers we will be.
There may be some cognitive dissonance too as we learn new ways of doing things, we try to rationalise why we do what we do.

The key is to learn about equine body language and the signs of appeasement and calming behaviours. Once seen they can’t be unseen and pop up all the time – watch videos and analyse the horses reactions. Know the signs of a distressed horse, learn what eye wrinkles mean and tight lips and chins. We all need a little adrenaline rush to get us going but too much and a horse way over his/her emotional threshold is not a good sign. Nor is it healthy for the horse, horses are very good at disguising how they feel.

Reference
LIMA principles
https://m.iaabc.org/about/position-statements/lima/

Language Signs and Calming Signals in Horses
https://www.amazon.co.uk/Language-Signs-Calming-Signals-Horses/dp/1138070157

The 5 Domains of Welfare
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/7/8/60/htm

https://www.companionanimalpsychology.com/2017/01/the-five-domains-model-aims-to-help.html

Research into how horses may hide stress
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322797438_Poker_Face_Discrepancies_in_behaviour_and_affective_states_in_horses_during_stressful_handling_procedures